Analysis was performed with regard to the normative-legal and methodological approaches to determination of safe distances from hazardous production facilities of the main pipelines, including for cases of construction in the vicinity of the main pipelines with the violation of the regulatory requirements. Experience was analyzed concerning the normative regulation of the main pipeline location in the UK, based on the methodology of quantitative risk assessment. Using regulatory methods of Rostechnadzor and the EMERCOM of Russia, the calculations were carried out with regard to the effect of the main pipelines process parameters and other factors on the accident risk indices for typical main pipelines of oil, gas and liquefied petroleum gas. It is shown that the most significant factors effecting the minimum distances on criterion of people exposure are: pipeline diameter (identifies the mass of hazardous substance discharge and its share in the accident); properties of hazardous substances; value of the permissible individual risk of people fatalities; operating pressure; meteorological conditions that identify the rate of hazardous substances evaporation and the range of cloud drift and explosion of fuel-air mixtures.
Experience was generalized concerning the development of Project Specific Technical Specifications and Safety Cases related to the deviations from the minimum distances established in SP 36.13330.2012. The analysis of the presented results shows that the use of the modern methods of ensuring safety of the main pipelines allows to substantiate the significant decrease of the minimum distances compared to the regulatory values.
It was proposed to introduce changes in SP 36.13330.2012, which will be ensuring the reduction by 40–60 % of the minimum distances tabulated values from the axis of the liquefied petroleum gas main pipelines to the settlements.
Zaikin I.A., Aleshin Yu.V., Lisanov M.V., Agapov A.A., Sofyin A.S., Sumskoy S.I.
Specifics of the development of emergency situations at the pipeline transportation facilities with accidental damage of the elements are considered. It is shown that the ability of the system to withstand process development of the progressive blocking of hubs should be estimated using the resistance index, which represents the average proportion of the damaged hubs, blocking which in a random order leads to breaking the connection with the source of all the disconnected consumers of the end product.
It is possible to increase resistance of the systems to the development of the process of progressive blocking using measures for protection of transport hubs. In this case, the efficiency of protection depends on the composition, structure of the system, as well as on the adopted protection scheme. Difficulties that occur in assessing efficiency of the adopted protection scheme are conditioned by the fact that the comparison of the systems resistance indicators with alternative options of protection is possible only at comparability of their network structures.
It is proved that comparable systems are comparable if they have the same number: consumer nodes, which can be disconnected from the source as a result of the development of the blocking process; damaged nodes able to transfer to a state of inoperability due to lack of appropriate protection; peripheral clusters with two or more consumer hubs and the same number of such hubs in each of them. In addition, the sequence of disconnecting from the source, both individual consumers and peripheral clusters with different numbers of product consumers, should be the same.
For comparable systems, the comparison of the values of indicators of resistance, performed by the method of simulation modeling, is the correct one and allows you to substantiate and make reasonable design solutions.
Accident rate at hazardous production facilities is mainly identified by the condition of moral and physical depreciation of the fixed assets in the fuel and energy industries. Buildings, structures, working and power machines and equipment, measuring and control devices and machines, production stock and accessories constitute the material and technical base not only of industrial production, but also of ensuring industrial safety at hazardous production facilities. Depreciation factor of the fixed assets is almost always present in the causes of accidents at hazardous production facilities in the modern Russia. Accident and injury rate as the inevitable and tragic costs of industrial production occur and manifest themselves only in the process of industrial activity. To assess the state of safety at hazardous and at the same time production facilities, an up-to-date picture of the creation, availability, use and maintenance of the fixed assets in industrial production is required. Statistical data are considered about the fixed assets in the industry of Russia from the middle of the XX century till present, obtained from the official sources of the Central Statistical Office of the USSR, Goscomstat of Russia, Rosstat and Rostechnadzor. Despite the stabilization of the fixed assets renewal, in the past 10 years the trend has been emerged towards the acceleration of the fixed assets depreciation at hazardous production facilities. On the average, up to 70 % of the equipment used at hazardous production facilities has expired service life. It is appropriate to redistribute the functions of supervision over safe reproduction of the fixed assets in industry to the modern risk-oriented structures for ensuring industrial safety at hazardous production facilities.
Grazhdankin A.I., Razumnyak N.L.
The state policy of the past years in the field of design and construction was based on metal saving and all-round use of the reinforced concrete structures, methods of which protection from the effects of aggressive media have not been finally studied. Whereas the provisions of the normative documents of that time were limited mainly to the use of secondary methods of protection. As time has shown, the design service life of such structues is not maintained, which puts the enterprises in high-risk conditions. First of all it is related to productions where technologies are used that form aggressive gaseous media. Such generalizations are made by the authors based on the expert opinions received at many objects of the Russian Federation, at AO Angarsk Petrochemical Company in particular.
It is noted in the article that the scientific achievements of the recent years in the field of construction have brought to the forefront the primary measures of protection of the reinforced concrete and metal structures against the effects of aggressive media, which, together with the secondary ones, make it possible to increase the service life of the objects. However, such measures are impossible on the previously constructed objects. Therefore, the authors, based on their own experience of work in this area, made specific proposals. Based on the fact, that the corrosion of structures on the territory of industrial enterprises is uneven, it is advisable to carry out expertise of industrial safety of the buildings and structures not after the expiry of the scheduled time in full scope of the entire enterprise, but on the actual condition of the objects recorded during their periodic or extraordinary inspections. This will allow to establish the priority of the first and foremost facilities for conducting expertise, the adoption of the relevant repair and restoration measures and, accordingly, to reduce the financial burden on the enterprise. It is required to draw Rostechnadzor attention to the incorrectness of the directive instructions with regard to the need for conducting of industrial safety expertise — they do not fully reflect the required prerequisites for this. It is necessary to recommend to the owners of hazardous production facilities to carry out repair and restoration work using the latest achievements of science and practice, in particular with the use of polymer composite materials, thixotropic compositions of dry mixes, adhesive compounds, etc.
Alekseev A.A., Kolinichenko A.F.
At present, the liquefied natural gas industry is the leader in the rates of growth among other branches of the world fuel and energy complex. The government of the Russian Federation has also set and highlighted as a priority task the development of the native technology for liquefaction of the natural gas and creation on its basis of the liquefied natural gas large-scale complexes for various purposes. The process of the formation of the world gas market is currently directly related to the production of the liquefied natural gas, since its supplier is practically not limited to geographical factors, as with the use of the pipeline transport, and the capacity of this segment of the world gas market is growing faster than the pipeline one.
In the industrial and technological chain of the liquefied natural gas production and handling, the following main links are emphasized: natural gas development, production, transportation and regasification of the liquefied natural gas. The most important technologies in this chain are natural gas liquefaction, on which basis the lines and plants for the production of the liquefied natural gas are built. Moreover, such plants are the most complicated and capital-intensive objects in the industrial chain. They take a special place in the technical and economic indicators of the development of the liquefied natural gas industry — the specific share of the production link here amounts to 50 % of the total investment volume.
The Federal Law of July 21, 1997 № 116-FZ «On Industrial Safety of Hazardous Production Facilities» refers technological structures of the plants producing liquefied natural gas to the hazardous production facilities. Therefore, the further development of technologies for the production of liquefied natural gas in Russia actualizes the role and importance of safe operation of these objects. The purpose of the article is to review the required systems of control and monitoring of the technological processes for production and storage of the liquefied natural gas ensuring safe operation of the liquefied natural gas plants.
Mansurova A.M., Mutovin Yu.G.
Shale revolution led to the great results in the United States, and the same is in Russia. It has been already recognized that in the most of regions the number of traditional hydrocarbon traps has almost became obsolete. Research, studies of non-anticlinal hydrocarbon traps, among which the significant proportion relates to traps due to active faults, is being conducted: in the shelf area, in the Eastern and Western Siberia.
The special role of the fault is in the formation of the large aggregate of difficultly mapped hydrocarbon accumulations — tectonically dependent secondary accumulations. The effect of fault tectonics on fluid dynamics is obvious. Common features of the deposits assigned to tectonites are primarily related to bazhenites, which had been studied most of all among shale formations.
The process of ensuring safe exploration works in the conditions of the development of tectonites (bazhenites) includes two (as minimum) geologic elements:
comprehensive analysis of all the geological and geophysic material with regard to the identification and tracking of active faults and the local forecast of areas of their maximum influence — zones of abnormally high formation pressures;
implementation of design solutions with risk minimization during the construction of an exploration hole under the direct guidance by the geologist, who shall ensure safe opening of the formations with abnormally high formation pressure and completeness of geological study.
In order to avoid unjustified loss of time and money, to minimize risks, ensure the highest safety during search of shale hydrocarbons, it is required to organize coordination and cooperation of forces of all those involved in this complex process. And in the first instance, this must be implemented among the geological services of organizations.
The efficient solution of the problem will require conducting of the complete and objective revision of all the obsolete geological and geophysical material. This will clarify not only the further fate of the «obsolete» fields, but it will also facilitate the safer operation of oil and gas exploration at the new shale fields.
One of the priorities of the state agrarian policy of the Russian Federation is the reclamation of agricultural lands. The percent of the reclaimed areas increases annually. For example, in 2016 the area of irrigated farmland increased by 6940 hectares compared to 2015. This increase along with the intensive use of the irrigation technologies result in need to improve the activities for people and environment protection from the negative production factors.
The results of the analysis of injury rate at the performance of land reclamation works in agriculture are presented. Studies were conducted using the database «Injury rate with fatal and severe outcome in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation», which was developed by the authors of the article. It is established that the greatest number of injuries with fatality and drastic consequences have been referred to the drivers in the field of reclamation, compressor unit operators, watchmen and guards. The main sources of injury are mobile cars. The most traumatic works are: repair and maintenance of the machinery and equipment, transportation, production facilities protection. The age of the majority of victims is over 40 years.
The main causes of injuries during land reclamation work are the unsatisfactory organization of the labor process, dangerous actions of the injured person, and malfunction of the equipment. Models of irrigation equipment, during which operation and maintenance the majority of incidents occurred, are listed in the article. Noted was the need to pay special attention to safety of work for large-scale irrigation equipment in the area of high-voltage power lines.
Galyanov I.V., Rodimtsev S.A., Studennikova N.S.
According to the Administrative Regulations of Rostechnadzor, all the territorial bodies are obliged to publish information from industrial safety Register of Expertise on their websites. However, the structure, which will be single for everybody concerning data presentation in the reporting files, the format of their presentation (Word, Excel, PDF), the frequency of updating the information provided are not established, that complicates conducting analytical work with such information and reduces its practicality.
Free online service «Register of Expertise» has been developed and successfully launched by STC «Industrial Safety» CJSC. This service is accessible for use by everyone. The aim of the work is to collect all the open data on industrial safety expertise in one place with establishing the relevant single database and the web interface for work from any device. In parallel the task of binding of data with the expert organizations and clients of expertise was solved. The «Register of Expertise» consists of two workspaces: «Pulse of Expertise» and «Organizations».
«Pulse of Expertise» is the space generalizing information on all the loaded number of expertise for all the accessible periods with presentation of their distribution in the form of graphs and pie charts.
«Organizations» is the space focused on providing detailed information on organizations. Here the data is provided for each organization, its quantitative rating on all the objects of expertise for the selected period, and the percentage of completed number of expertise of the total. In this space there is a possibility to switch to the detailed information on the organization, valid licenses and use all the analytical tools, and, also the dynamic and static rankings are implemented.
In the conclusions it is proposed that the files hosted by the territorial bodies should have one data update rate and one date of hosting on the websites, which will allow to bring data actuality to the uniform denominator in a single database for the reporting period and the correctness of their analysis, based on which it will be possible to draw conclusions and track trends, and also to fully ensure data actuality from industrial safety Register of Expertise taking into account modern information environment and hardware.
Buynovskiy S.A., Vinogradov A.P., Shalaev V.K.
Working conditions of the employees of the electric arc furnace shop in PAO «TAGMET» (Taganrog) were investigated considering the fact that the thermal radiation is the main hazard factor of metallurgical production. At the design stage of steel-smelting and thermal shops, as well as during upgrade of the metallurgical and thermal furnaces, the possible negative effects of radiation sources on workers are not taken into account, as a result of which protection with distance and time in the shops is practically inefficient.
Calculation of heat radiation using the methods for constructing radiation diagrams and establishing the exposure dose of thermal radiation allowed to determine the class of working conditions in the hot shops with the thermoradiation microclimate, and, also to offer methods and means of protecting open and closed workplaces. Three ways are proposed to ensure acceptable working conditions on the exposure dose of thermal radiation: reduction of thermal radiation intensity from the source, decrease of the dose of the radiated body surface of the worker, limitation of time of exposure to thermal radiation. Implementation of the first option is recognized as impossible, the second is irrational. Eventually, the only reasonable method of solving the set problem is the protection from time against the harmful factor influence. Rational modes of work and rest are recommended, which allow reducing the exposure dose of thermal radiation and ensuring compliance with safe working conditions in the shop. The proposals made need to be coordinated due to possible contradictions with the requirements for technological process of smelting.
The conclusion was made about the efficiency of application of the method for radiation diagrams construction at the design and reconstruction stage of the thermal shops for assessment of metallurgists working conditions of and development of recommendations for reducing them.
Meskhi B.Ch., Bulygin Yu.I., Shekina E.V., Medvedev A.V.
Study of geothermal energy sources located at depth, as well as the construction of deep deposit for final radioactive waste disposal requires special attention with regard to geological and geophysical research methods, because the search and construction of the facilities are conducted according to the requirements established by the German law. Engineering-geological barrier effect of rocks and the determination of the volumetric hydraulic permeability in situ are critical. While deep geothermal sources require a porous rock complex with good permeability, for the final disposal of radioactive waste, those geological formations are searched that do not have porosity and exclude water permeability to prevent possible environmental pollution. The Law on Atomic Energy in the Federal Republic of Germany regulates the technology for selection of the disposal sites. Mainly in Germany, the host rocks such as rock salt, clays and crystalline rocks are considered as disposal sites for highly radioactive waste. In the assumed location, the disposal takes place in deep geological formations in the specially created workings for complete sealing (at least 1 million years). The possibility of re-disposal is foreseen during the entire period of permanent disposal functioning and extraction for 500 years after the planned sealing of the final disposal. In the German Mining Regulations it is noted that the free minerals for search include the heat of the Earth and other forms of energy that appear in connection with its mining, i.e. the heat of the Earth is not owned by the owner of the site, but it belongs to everyone (the state). Geological and geophysical methods are considered for studying the structures suitable for locating deep disposal areas there for radioactive waste final disposal. Exploration and research are aimed at using primarily measuring geophysical methods to identify the foundation structures, calculate the geological model during data processing and interpretation, visualize it and thereby determine the optimal well location points in order to search for suitable locations to create underground disposal areas or suitable sites for deep geothermometry.
Rafat G., Bissmann S., Lehmann B., Dombrowski B., Vedyaev A.Yu.